• Substitution
    • Tech acts as a direct tool substitute, with no functional change
    • Used for enhancement
    • Example:
      • Using smart board to do flash cards
  • Augmentation
    • Tech acts as a direct tool substitute with functional improvement
    • Used for enhancement
    • Example:
      • Use eText to quickly search for a word in a document or book wether then wasting time skimming.
      • Using blogs
  • Modification
    • Tech allows for significant task redesign
    • Used for transformation
    • Example:
      • Using a clicker in class to take quizzes and start discussions
      • Use visual tools to look at complex information
  • Redefinition
    • Tech allows for the creation of new tasks, previously inconceivable
    • Used for transformation
    • Example:
      • Using programs such as Xtranormal, Alice, or Second Life
      • Opportunity to work in 2D or 3D
  • Working at the substitution and augmentation level is a transitional step to moving to modification and redefinition